Page size

If setting for printer, use A5 page, with margins 2cm top and bottom, 2.2 cm left and right.


Main title 24pt (not bold)

Author(s) 10pt 

For books, notes etc

Books (24pt)

Title of review (16pt) 


Set in italic, thin rules above and below. Keywords in normal text (not ital)



Use initials or short titles where possible. Use full title first time followed by initials or short form in brackets, thereafter use initials or short form.

Stratford City Challenge (SCC). It is recommended that SCC look at ways etc.        


Phone, plane, bus without apostrophe. Do not use in plurals: MPs not MP’s; 1990s not 1990’s. Check for 'its' and 'it's'.


Used mathematically eg a(b=(1+b))

Squared brackets [ .....] for missing or substituted words or original publication date (1976[1945])


Use sparingly. If used for any word - eg State or Government, they should be the same throughout unless there is a deliberate distinction eg between state and State, or general and specific - a polytechnic, the Polytechnic of

Cross references

Use economically. Put in brackets (see above).


Day - month - year ie 1 March 1996   (no commas)

1992-93 to 1993-94 (Not 1992/3 etc)   1970s (not 70s)


Avoid or minimise footnotes; footnotes go at end of article, with superscript numbers in text

Full stops and commas

Full stops and commas to be used sparingly. CIS not C.I.S., BSc PhD DIC not B.Sc., Ph.D., D.I.C.     ie and eg not i.e. and e.g.


First order side heads in bold,  second order in italics.


Where possible avoid hyphens by writing as one word, eg database, multidisciplinary. Use hyphens when normal to do so but avoid creating new forms. However, there are some occasions when hyphens are used in the context of the work; full-time, part-time, face-to-face and one-to-one are all examples. Long-term (as an adjective) but in the long term. 


To make a list of points, do it as follows:

  • Those which primarily exist to serve their members’ interests.
  • Those which are more inclined to focus their work externally to their organisation.

 If the points are a full sentence or more:

  • A representative from the print workshop said ‘to promote further education for the public good... from an art and design background’.
  • A worker for an arts education project suggested education was the factor most likely to bring about change.

 Indents are 0.5cm.

If unavoidable, label the points:

a)   this year

b)   next

c)   sometime

d)   never


Use UK English and change US English to this (labour not labor) except in direct quotes or titles. Use English spelling for words like organisation, summarise, programme etc, not organization, summarize and program (except for computers).

When referring to legislation use exactly the same title as the original. White Papers etc - the year of the paper comes first - the 1995 White Paper.

Use per cent not %.

Foreign words, such as et al, ad hoc are in italics.

Take care with use of he or she if including both sexes and with the use of such words as businessman, chairman etc. Avoid ‘their’ for singular subjects.


Numbers from one to ten are written in text, one, two, three, not 1-10, but 11,12,109 etc, except when numbers are listed such as 5,17,23. Numbers acceptable for per cent: 8 per cent etc. Do not use % except in tables.

At the beginning of sentences all numbers are spelt out. Fifty three per cent of respondents said something.

References and quotations


Use single quotes for a first quotation, double quotes for a quotation within a quotation. Within quotations use the exact punctuation and spelling as in the original (do not change to house style). For example:

The finished product should be of high quality, this is endorsed by Locke (1996) who suggests ‘there are occasions when it is ok, and I summarize from Pratt (1996) who is keen ”to gain uniformity” and high standards’, and we owe it to each other to use appropriate methods.

When a quote is a complete sentence the full stop comes before the quotation mark, but if not the full stop comes after the quotation mark.

If a quotation is three lines or more, indent both sides (0.5cm) and give a one line space above and below text as shown in the following example:

‘You will notice this paragraph is indented at both sides. This can be done easily, either at the time of typing or after the work is typed. This is not the style used in the past but most people prefer this format.’


References in text go in brackets immediately following the reference (Locke, 1996) with full reference listed alphabetically at end of work.

Where quoting, cite page number (Burgess, 1996: 4)

Where more than one reference (Pratt, 1959; Butler, 1996)

Where more than reference for an author and date (Pratt, 1959a; 1959b)

Where more than one author with same surname (Pratt, J, 1965, Pratt , S, 1972)

Reference lists

Set in 9pt, with 0.5cm hanging indent.

Use commas between items as shown, no full stop at end. Book titles in u and lc.

For book as follows:

Locke, M and Pratt, J (Year) Title of Book in Italics,  Place of publication: Publisher

Reference for chapter or paper in book as follows:

Locke, M (Year) ‘Title of Chapter’, in Stevenson, D (ed) Book Title in Italics, Place of publication: Publisher

Where more than one chapter/paper from a book is cited, include the book as a reference and cite chapter/paper: as in Stevenson (Year).

Reference for PhD etc:

Locke, M (Year) Title, PhD dissertation, University of X. Place

Reference for conference paper not published:

Locke, M (Year) Title, Paper presented at Conference Title, Place

Reference for journal as follows:

Locke, M (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Name of Journal in Italics, 111 (1): 1-2

                                                             (111 is volume    (1) issue 1-2 page numbers)

Reference for magazine as follows:

Locke, M (Year) ‘Title of Article’, Name of Magazine in Italics, 28 June: 1

      (eg, where has date not volume and issue)

Example where author abbreviated and additional details after title:

DfEE (Year) Title. Circular 93/13. Department for Education and Employment. London

Do not use op cit, ibid etc in list. (It’s a different style convention)

The independent international journal of policy and practice in post-school education since 1968